The Jungle | #7

The whole country was a lie; its freedom was a lie, a snare for pauper workingmen; its prosperity was a lie of rich employers, its justice was a lie of grafting politicians.

 All summer long the family toiled, and in the fall they had money enough for Jurgis and Ona to be married according to home traditions of decency. In the latter part of November they hired a hall, and they invited, not only their friends, but their friends' friends, and all others who might chance to hear of it. For a week or two there was preparation; it was necessary that Ona should have a white muslin dress and Jurgis a new suit of black; and then from Saturday morning till Sunday afternoon there was baking and boiling, and endless trips to everywhere to borrow knives and forks and crockery. So at last the great hour arrived, and as we have seen, the guests came and showed them what becomes of honor and decency in the dominions of the self-made merchant.

 They were over a hundred dollars in debt, and all things not yet counted. It was bitter and cruel experience, and it left them plunged in an agony of despair. Such a time of all times for them to have it, when their hearts were made tender! Such a pitiful beginning it was for their married life; they loved each other so, and they could not have the briefest respite! It was a time when everything cried out to them that they ought to be happy; when wonder burned in their hearts, and leaped into flame at the slightest breath. They were shaken to the depths of them, with the awe of love realized; and was it so very weak of them that they cried out for a little peace? They had opened their hearts, like flowers to the springtime, and the merciless winter had fallen upon them. They wondered if any love that ever had blossomed in the world before, had been so crushed and trampled!

 Over them, relentless and savage, there cracked the lash of want; the morning after the wedding it sought them as they slept, and drove them out before day-break to work. Ona was scarcely able to stand with exhaustion; but if she were to lose her place they would be ruined, and she would surely lose it if  she were not on time that day. They all had to go, even little Stanislovas, who was so tired that he could scarcely stand, and ill besides from overindulgence from sausages and sarsaparilla. All that day he stood at his lard-machine, rocking unsteadily, his eyes closing in spite of him; and he all but lost his place even be, for the foreman booted him twice to waken him, and once more and he would have booted him out of the door.

 It was fully a week before they were all normal again, and meantime, with whining children and cross adults, the house was not a pleasant place to live in. Marija and Jonas would have to do without their savings till Jurgis could earn the money to pay them back; and though they did not say anything, they were naturally disconcerted at this. And then there came Grajezuhas, the saloon-keeper, with his bill, nearly thirty dollars more than they had expected—and he demanding that it be paid upon the instant. There was some reason for dispute within the family, for Jurgis had doubted this man from the beginning, and had wanted to have nothing to do now but pay him—only Jurgis recouped himself by calling him names, and they all but had a fight. In truth it was not fair to describe him as a devourer of the poor, for he had troubles of his own. The saloons in Packingtown lie as thick as the leaves of Vallambrosa, and the competition is deadly. The goods handed out over the counter have long since reached the possibility of adulteration, and so no man can get the better of another that way; and half the saloon-keepers are in debt to the big brewers, who furnish them liquor on credit, and then when they cannot pay, take over their business. Thus again were the strong devouring the weak, according to the law which prevails in the jungle.

 Jurgis lost his temper very little, however, all things considered. It was because of Ona; the least glance at her was always enough to make him control himself. She was so sensitive—she was not fitted for such a life as this, the truth be told; and a hundred times a day, when he thought of her, Jurgis would clench his hands and again fling himself at the task before him. She was too good for him, he told himself, and he was afraid, because she was his. So long he had hungered to possess her, but now that the time had come he knew that he had not earned the right; that she trusted him so was all her own simple goodness, and no virtue of his. But he was resolved that she should never find this out, and so was always on the watch to see that he did not betray any of his ugly self; he would take care even in little matters, such as his manners, and his habit of swearing when things went wrong. The tears came so easily to Ona's eyes, and she would look at him so appealingly—it kept Jurgis quite busy making resolutions, in addition to all the other things he had on his mind. It was true that more things were going on at this time in the mind of Jurgis than ever had in all his life before.

 He had to protect her, to do battle for her against the horror he saw about them. He was all that she had to look to, and if he failed she would be lost; he would wrap his arms around her, and try to hide her from the world. He had learned the ways of things about him, now, the laws of the jungle. It was a war of each against all, and the devil take the hindmost; it was a battle to death, waged without respite, and the only safety was in instant watching, ready either to fight or flee. It was best to travel in the dark, and to strike from a covert; and when you had killed you did not stop to weep over your victims—nor when you failed did you cry out for sympathy, but crawled to a hole and died—in other words, you put money in your purse. You did not give feasts to other people, you waited for them to give feasts to you. You went about with your soul full of suspicion and hatred, and if anyone talked to you about friendship or trust you were not long in finding out what he wanted. You understood that you were environed by hostile power that were trying to get your money, and who used all the virtues to bait their traps with. The store-keepers plastered up their windows with all sorts of lies to entice you; the very fences by the wayside, the lamp-posts and telegraph-poles, were pasted over with beastly lies. The great corporation which employed you lied to you, and lied to the whole country—from top to bottom it was nothing but one gigantic lie. The whole country was a lie; its freedom was a lie, a snare for pauper workingmen; its prosperity was a lie of rich employers, its justice was a lie of grafting politicians. And so no matter where you went in it, or for what purpose—to buy a house, for instance—you did not pay any attention to all the fine speeches and you were not taken in by politeness; you were polite yourself, as long as it suited you, but you understood that you were dealing with a knave, and you were ready to flash out in anger and defiance at the least occasion.

 Jurgis said that he understood it; and yet it was really pitiful, for the struggle was so unfair. Some has so much the advantage! Here he was for instance, vowing upon his knees that he would save Ona from harm, and only a week later she was suffering atrociously, and from the blow of an enemy that he that he could not possibly have thwarted. There came a day when the rain fell in torrents; and it being December, to be wet with it and have to sit all day long i one of the cold cellars of Smith's was no laughing matter. Ona was a working girl, and did not own waterproofs and such things, and so Jurgis took her and put her on the street-car. Now it chance that this car-line was owned by wealthy gentlemen who were trying to make money out of it; and the city having passed an ordinance requiring them to give transfers, they had fallen into a rage at this interference with the elemental right of business men to manage their own business in their own way, and were now trying to revenge themselves. First they had made a rule that transfers could be had only when the fare was paid, and later, growing still uglier, they made another—that the passenger must ask for the transfer, the conductor was not allowed to offer it. Now Ona had been told that she was to get a transfer; but it was not her way to speak up, and so she merely waited, following the conductor about with her eyes, wondering when he would think of her. When at last the time came for her to get out, she asked for the transfer, and was refused. Not knowing what to make of this, she began to argue with the conductor, in a language of which he did not understand a word. After warning her several times, he pulled the bell and the car went on—at which Ona burst into tears. At the next corner she got out, of course; and as she had no more money, she had to work the rest of the way to the yards in the pouring rain. And so all day long she sat shivering, and came home at night with her teeth chattering and pains in her head and back. For two weeks afterwards she suffered cruelly—and yet every day she had to drag herself to her work. Twice during the time she swooned dead away, but the forewoman would not let her come home, even so. Girls were all the time wanting to go home, and it made extra trouble keeping the records; so generally they are told to go and lie on the floor in the corner a while, and see if they do not feel better. The forewoman was especially severe with Ona, because she believed she was obstinate on account of having been refused a holiday the day after her wedding. Ona had an idea that her "forelady" did not like to have her girls marry—perhaps because she was old and ugly and unmarried herself.

 There were many such dangers, in which the odds were all against them. Their children were not as well as they had been at home; but how could they know that there was no sewer to their house, and that the drainage of fifteen years was in a cesspool under it? How could they know that the pale blue milk that they bought around the corner was watered, and doctored with formaldehyde besides? When the children were not well at home, Teta Elzbieta would gather herbs and cure them; now she was obliged to go to the drug-store and buy extracts—and how what she to know that they were all adulterated, that a pure drug is not to be bought any longer by a poor man in the United States of America? How could they find out that their tea and coffee, their sugar and flour, had all been doctored; their canned peas had been colored with copper-salts, and their fruit jams with aniline dyes? And even if they had known it, what good would it have done them since there was no place within miles of them where any other sort was to be had? The bitter winter was coming, and they had to save money to get more clothing and bedding; but it would not matter in the least how much they saved, they could not get anything to keep them warm. All the clothing that was to be had in the stores was made of cotton and shoddy, which is made by tearing old clothes to peices and weaving the fibre again. If they paid higher prices they might get frills and fanciness, or be cheated; but genuine quality they could obtain for love nor money. A young friend of Szadwilas's, recently come from abroad, had become a clerk in a store on Ashland avenue, and had taken quickly to the ways of the place; he had narrated with glee a trick he had played upon a unsuspecting country-man, thereby gaining great favor with him employer. The customer had desired to purchase an alarm-clock, and the clerk had shown him two exactly similar, telling him that the price of one was a dollar, and of the other a dollar seventy-five. Upon being asked what the difference was, the clerk had wound up the first halfway, and the second all the way, and showed the customer how the latter made twice as much noise; upon which the customer remarked that he was a sound sleeper, and had better take the more expensive clock!

 There is a poet who sings that

Deeper their heart grows and nobler their bearing,
Whose youth in the fires of anguish hath died,

 It is not likely that he had reference to the kind of anguish that comes with destitution, that is so endlessly bitter and cruel, and yet so sordid and petty, so ugly, so humiliating—unredeemed by the slightest touch of dignity, or even pathos. It is kind of anguish that poets have not commonly dealt with; its very words are not admitted into the vocabulary of poets—the details of it cannot be told in polite society at all. How, for instance, could any one expect to excite sympathy among lovers of good literature by telling how a family found their home alive with vermin, and of all the suffering and inconvenience and humiliation they were put to, and the hard-earned money they spent in efforts to get rid of them. The cultured reader's own home is provided with a bath-room—perhaps with half a dozen; and he does not have to stand in the midst of blood and filth from seven o'clock in the morning until six or, perhaps nine at night; and he has time to use his bath-tub, and cannot understand why everyone is not as clean as he. Also, when he goes traveling he does not sleep in places where his clothing and baggage get filled with vermin; if such a deplorable accident were to happen, he would probably burn them all. Our family tried to get rid of them; after long hesitation and uncertainty they paid twenty-five cents for a big package of insect-powder—a powder which chanced to be ninety-five per cent gypsum, a harmless earth with had cost two cents to prepare. Of course it had not the least effect, except upon a few roaches which had the misfortune to drink water after eating it, and so go their innards set in a coating of plaster of paris, and no more money to throw away, had nothing to do but give up, and submit to one more misery for the rest of their days.

 Once upon a time a great-hearted woman set forth the sufferings of the black chattel-slave, and roused a continent to arms. She had many things in her favor, which cannot be counted on by him who would paint the life of the modern slave—the slave of the factory, the sweat-shop and the mine. The lash which drives the latter cannot either be seen or heard; most people do not believe that it exists—it is the cant of the philanthropist and the political convention that it does not exist. This slave is never hunted by blood hounds; he is not beaten to pieces by picturesque villains, nor does he die in ecstasies of religious faith. His religion is but another snare of his oppressors, and the bitterest of his misfortunes; the hounds that hunt him are disease and accident and the villain who murders him is merely the prevailing rate of wages. And who can thrill the reader with the tale of a man-hunt, in which the hunted is a lousy and ignorant foreigner, and the hunters are the germs of consumption, diphtheria, and typhoid? Who can make a romance out of the story of a man whose one life-adventure is the scratching of a finger by an infected butcher-knife, with a pine-box and a pauper's grave as the denouement? And yet it may be just as painful to die of blood-poisonings to be beaten to death; to be tracked by blood-hounds and torn to pieces is most certainly a merciful fate compared to that which falls to thousands every year in Packingtown—to be hunted for life by bitter poverty, to be ill-clothed and badly housed, to be weakened by starvation, cold and exposure, to be laid low by sickness or accident—and then to lie and watch, while the gaunt wolf of hunger creeps in upon you and gnaws out the heart of you, and tears up the bodies and souls of your wife and babes.

 There was old Antanas, for instance; the winter came, and the place where he worked was a dark unheated cellar, where you could see your breath all day, and where your fingers sometimes tired to freeze. So the old man's cough grew every day worse, until there came a time when it hardly ever stopped, and he had become a nuisance about the place. Then, too, a still more dreadful thing happened to him; he worked in a place where his feet were soaked in chemicals, and it was not long before they had eaten through his new boots. Then sores began to break out on his feet, and grew worse and worse; whether it was that his blood was bad, or there had been a cut, he could not say; but he asked the men about it, and learned that it was a regular thing—it was the saltpetre. Everyone felt it, sooner or later, and then it was all up with him, at least for that sort of work. The sores would never heal, but in the end his toes would drop off, if he did not quit. Yet old Antanas would not quit—he saw the suffering of his family, and he remembered what it had cost him to get a job. So he tied up his feet and went on limping about and coughing, until at last he fell to pieces, all at once, and in a heap, like the One Horse Shay. They carried him to a dry place and laid him on the floor, and that night two of the men helped him home. The poor old man was put to bed, and though he tried it every morning until the end, he never could get up again. He would lie there and cough and cough, day and night, wasting away to a mere skeleton. There can a time when there was so little flesh on him that the bones began to poke through—which was a horrible thing to see, or even think of. And one night he had a choking fit, and a little river of blood came out of his mouth. The family, wild with terror, sent for a doctor and paid half a dollar to be told that there was nothing to be done. Mercifully the doctor did not say this so that the old man could hear, for he was still clinging to the faith that tomorrow or next day he would be better, and could go back to his job. The company had sent word to him that they would keep it for him—or rather Jurgis had bribed one of the men to come one Sunday afternoon and say they had. Diedas Antanas continued to believe it, while three more hemorrhages came; and then at last one morning they found him stiff and cold. Things were not going well with them then, and though it nearly broke Teta Elzbieta's heart, they were forced to dispense with nearly all the decencies of a funeral; they had only a hearse, and one hack for the women and children; and Jurgis, who was learning things fast, spent all Sunday making a bargain for these, and he made it in the presence of witnesses, so that when the man tried to charge him for all sorts of incidentals, he did not have to pay. For twenty-five years old Antanas Rudkos and his son had dwelt in the forest together, and it was hard to part in this way; perhaps it was just as well that Jurgis had to give all his attention to the task of having a funeral without being bankrupted, and so had no time to indulge in memories and grief.

The original printed illustration for this installment showing Old Antanas in bed. Teta Elzbieta is in impassioned discussion with a black coated and hatted doctor. Caption "The family would with terror send for a doctor."

 Now the dreadful winter was come upon them. In the forests, and summer long, the branches of the trees do battle for light, and some of them lose and die; and then in the winter come the raging blasts, and the storms of snow and hail, and strew the ground with these weaker branches. Just so it was in Packingtown; the whole district braced itself for the struggle that was an agony, and those whose time had come, died off in hordes. All the year round they had been serving as cogs in the great packing-machine; and now was the time for the renovating of the machine, and the replacing of damaged parts. There can pneumonia and grippe, stalking among them, seeking for weakened constitutions; there was the annual harvest of those who tuberculosis had been dragging down. There came cruel cold, and biting winds, and blizzards of snow, all testing relentlessly for failing muscles and impoverished blood. The packing-machines ground on remorselessly—and sooner or later came the day when the unfit one did not report for work; and then with no time lost in waiting, and no inquiries or regress, there was a chance for a new hand.

 The new hands were here, by the thousands. All day long the gates of the packing-houses were besieged by starving and penniless men; they came, literally by the thousands every single morning, fighting with each other in mad frenzy for a chance for life. Blizzards and frightful cold made no difference to them, they were always on hand; they were on hand two hours before the sun rose, an hour before the work began. Sometimes their faces froze, sometimes their feet and hands; sometimes they froze all together—but still they came, for they had no other place to go. One day Anderson advertised in the paper for two hundred men to cut ice; and all that day the homeless and starving of the jungle came trudging through the snow from all over its two hundred square miles. That night forty score of them crowded into the station-house of the stock-yards district—they filled the rooms, sleeping in each others laps, toboggan-fashion, and they piled on top of each other in the corridors, till the police shut the doors, and left some to freeze to death outside. On the morrow, before daybreak, there were three thousand at Anderson's, and the police-reserve had to be sent for to quell the riot. Then Anderson's bosses picked out twenty of the biggest and the papers had it that the "two hundred" was a printer's error.

 Four or five miles to the eastward lay the lake, and over this the bitter winds came raging. Sometimes the thermometer would fall to ten or twenty degrees below zero at night, and in the morning the streets would be piled with snowdrifts up to the first floor windows. The streets through which our friends had to go to their work were all unpaved and full of deep holes and gullies; in summer, when it rained hard, a man might have to wade to his waist to get to his house; and now in winter it was no joke getting through these places, before light in the mornings and after dark at night. They would wrap up in all they owned, but they could not wrap up against exhaustion; and many a man gave out in these battles with the snowdrifts, and lay down and fell asleep. And if it was bad for the men, one may imagine how the women and children fared. Some would ride in the cars, if these were running; but when you are making only five cents an hour, as was little Stanislovas, you do not like to spend that much to ride two miles. The children would come to the yards with great shawls about their ears, and so tied up that you could hardly find them—and still there would be accidents. One bitter morning in February the little boy who worked at the lard-machine with Stanislovas came about an hour late, and screaming with pain; they unwrapped him and a man began vigorously rubbing his ears. As they were frozen stiff it took only two or three rubs to break them short off, and then the little fellow lay down and rolled on the floor with agony. As a result of this, little Stanislovas conceived a terror of the cold that was almost a mania. Every morning, when it came time to start for the yards, he would begin to cry and protest; nobody knew quite how to manage him, for threats did no good—it seemed to be something that he could not control, and they feared sometimes that he would go into convulsions. In the end it had to be arranged that he always went with Jurgis, and came home with him again; often when the snow was deep, the man would carry him the whole way on his shoulders. But sometimes Jurgis would be working until late at night, and then it was pitiful, for there was no place for the little fellow to wait, save in the doorways or in a corner of the killing-floor, and he would all but fall asleep there, and freeze to death.

 There was no heat upon the killing-floor. The men might exactly as well have worked out of doors all winter. For that matter, there was very little heat anywhere in the building, except in the cooking-rooms and such places—and it was the men who worked in these who ran the most risk of all, because whenever they had to pass to another room they had to go through ice-cold corridors, and sometimes with nothing on above the waist except a sleeveless undershirt. In the summertime the chilling-rooms were counted deadly places, for the rheumatism and such things; but when it came to winter the men envied those who worked there—at least the chilling-rooms were kept at a precise temperature, and one could not freeze to death. On the killing-floor you might easily freeze, if the gang for any reason had to stop for a time. You were apt to be covered with blood, and it would freeze solid; if you leaned against a pillar you would freeze to that, and if you put your hand upon the blade of your knife, you would run a chance of leaving your skin on it. The men would tie up their feet in newspapers and old sacks, and these would be soaked in blood and frozen, and then soaked again, and so on, until by night time a man would be walking on great humps the size of the feet of an elephant. Now and then when the bosses were not looking, you would see them plunging their feet and ankles into the steaming hot carcass of the steer, or darting across the room to the hot-water jets. The cruelest thing of all was that nearly all of them—all of those who used knives—were unable to wear gloves, and their arms would be white with frost and their hands would grow numb, and then of course there would be accidents. Also the air would be full of steam, from the hot water and the hot blood, so that you could not see five feet before you; then, with men rushing about the killing-floor, and all with butcher-knives, like razors, in their hands—well, it was to be counted as a wonder that there were not more men slaughtered than cattle.

 And yet all this inconvenience they might have put up with, if only it had not been for on thing—if only there had had some place where they might eat. It was not so very long ago that one of the lords of Packingtown said at a banquet that it was of no use to pay more money to the men in the yards, because it all went to the saloon-keeper. And this gentleman and his associates have provided for themselves a private dining-room, and for their managers and office-employees a great dining-hall, where they may obtain as good food as can be had in the city at cost; and for the fifty or sixty thousand men who work for them with their hands, they have no provided even so much as a bench to sit down on! When Jurgis had toiled from seven till twelve to produce wealth for this oratorical gentleman, he was welcome to eat his dinner standing upon the killing-floor, amid the stench in which he worked; or else he might go and sit on the stairs where it was colder yet; or he might sit outside, where it was probably below zero, and snowing; or else, finally he might rush out, as did all his companions, to any one of the hundreds of saloons, which stretched out their arms to him. To the west of the yards ran Ashland avenue, and here was an unbroken line of saloons—"Whiskey Row," they called it; to the north was Forty-seventh street, and here there were half a dozen to the block; and at the angle where these joined was "Whiskey Point," a space of fifteen or twenty acres, and containing one glue factory and about two hundred saloons, and not another store or shop of any sort whatever. One might walk among these and take his choice: "Hot pea-soup and boiled cabbage to-day." "Beef-stew now ready." "Sauer-kraut and hot frankfurters. Walk in" "Bean soup and stewed lamb. Welcome" All of these things were printed in many languages, as were the names of the resorts. These were infinite in their variety and appeal. There was the "Home Circle," and the "Cosy Corner." There were "Firesides," and "Hearth-stones," and "Pleasure Palaces," and "Wonderlands." Nothing was too remote; there was an "Uncle Tom's Cabin," and a "Tivoli." Nothing was too fanciful; there were "Dream Castles," and "Music Lands" and "Love's Delights"—there was one place called "The Glory," and another called "The Vision." Whatever else they were called, they were sure to be called "Union Headquarters," and to hold out a welcome to working-men. There was always a warm stove, and a chair near it, and some friends to laugh and talk with. There was only one condition attached—you must drink. If you went in not intending to drink, you would be put out in no time, and if you were slow about going, like as not you would get your head split open with a beer bottle in the bargain. But all of the men understood the convention, and drank; they believed that by it they were getting something for nothing—for they did not need to take more than one drink, and upon the strength of it they might fill themselves up with a good hot dinner. This did not always work out in practice, for there was almost sure to be a friend who would treat you, and then you would have to treat him. Then someone else would come in—and anyhow, a few drinks were good for a man who worked hard. As he went back he did not shiver so, he had more courage for his task; the deadly brutalizing monotony of it did not afflict him so—he had ideas while he worked, and took a more cheerful view of his circumstances. On the way home however, the shivering was apt to come on him again; and so he would have to stop once or twice to warm up against the cruel cold. As there were hot things to eat in this saloon too, he might get home late to his supper, or he might not get home at all. And then his wife might set out to look for him, and she too would feel the cold; and perhaps she would have some of the children with her—and so a whole family would drift into drinking, precisely as the current of a river drifts down stream. As if to make complete the picture, the oratorical gentleman and his associates paid their men in checks, refusing all requests to pay in coin; and where in Packingtown could a man go to have his check cashed but to a saloon, where he could pay for the favor by spending a good part of the money?

 From all of these things Jurgis was saved because of Ona. He never would take but the one drink at noon-time; and so he got the reputation of being a surly fellow, and was not quite welcome at the saloons, and had to drift about from one to another. Then at night he would go straight home, helping Ona and Stanislovas, or often putting the former on a car. And when he got home perhaps he would have to trudge several blocks, and come staggering back through the snow-drifts with a bag of coal upon his shoulder. Home was not a very attractive place—at least not this winter. They had only been able to buy one stove, and this was a small one, and proved not big enough to warm even the kitchen in the bitterest weather. This made it hard for Teta Elzbieta all day, and for the children when they could not get to school. At night they would sit huddled round this stove, while they ate their supper off their laps; and then Jurgis and Jonas would smoke a pipe or two, after which they would all crawl into their beds to get warm, after putting out the fire to save the coal. Then they would have some frightful experiences, with the cruel cold. They would sleep with all their clothes on, including their overcoats, and put over them all the bedding and spare clothing they owned; the children would sleep all crowded into one bed, and yet even so they could not keep warm. The outside ones would be shivering and sobbing, crawling over the others and trying to get down into the center, and causing a fight. This old house with the leaky weather-boards was a very different thing from their cabins at home, with great thick walls plastered inside and outside with mud; and the cold which came upon them was a living thing, a demon-presence in the room. They would waken in the midnight hours when everything was black; perhaps they would hear it yelling outside; or perhaps there would be deathlike stillness, and that would be worse yet. They could feel the cold as it crept in through the cracks, reaching for them with its icy, death-dealing fingers; and they would crouch and cower, and try to hide from it, all in vain. It would come, and it would come; a grisly thing, a spectre born in the black caverns of terror, a power primeval, cosmic, shadowing the tortures of the lost souls, flung out to chaos and destruction. It was cruel, iron-hard; and hour after hour they would cringe in its grasp, alone in the silence. There would be no one to hear them if they cried out; there would be no help, no mercy. And so on until morning—when they would go out to another day of toil, a little weaker, a little nearer to the time when it would be their turn to be shaken from the tree.